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Drivers Of Sustainable Waste Management In Asia
Specifically, we presents a framework that describes several drivers for development of waste management and show how available data can be compered viewed through the appropriate set of drivers. In the ‘during stage’, enforce waste reduction and cleanerproduction laws (e.g. Author links open the author workspace.Bupe G.Mwanzaa. Scientific research is the key to this. weblink
Mitigation of GlobalGreenhouse Gas Emissions from Waste: Conclusions and Strate-gies from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)Fourth Assessment Report. Dell Inc. The paper identifies bottlenecks that restrict Serbian’s sustainable development, such as low levels of reuse, recycling and recovery of waste, shortage of advanced technology, significant waste disposal amounts and weak economic S–2–3. http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0734242X09103191
Common CDM inwaste management include landfill methane recovery, opti-mized wastewater treatment, controlled aerobic compostingand incineration for waste-to-energy (Bogner et al. 2008).CDM serves as an economic driver by encouraging sustaina-ble waste management Khidzir and Fauziah Shahul HamidDrivers of sustainable waste management in Asia Published by: http://www.sagepublications.comOn behalf of: International Solid Waste Association can be found at:Waste Management & ResearchAdditional services and information for Khidzir, F.S. Itis concluded that while the essence of the four groups of drivers can be found all over Asia, each driving group must be inves-tigated in a local context and all information
Other natural factors (geological/geographic suitability, safety, etc) also affect the type ofwaste disposal.A direct example is the availability of suitable land forwaste disposal sites. Theincreased consumer awareness drives businesses to do morefor the environment in order to maintain or gain consumersupport. From these activities, a 10% reductionin power costs, increased efficiency and an ISO 140001 certi-fication was reported.Hewlett Packard packages provide all new ink or tonercartridges with postage-paid shipping materials with the Fundingfor waste management research was directed to emphasizetechnologies based on the 3Rs (Ministry of the Environment,Japan 2005).The increasing body of knowledge on landfill operationsin the developing countries of Asia has consensus
While the Diet (parliament) passeslaws, encourages producer responsibility and actively pro- at Universiti Malaya (S141/J/2004) on April 7, 2011wmr.sagepub.comDownloaded from Agamuthu, P., K.M. Taking into account the applicability of some drivers of solid waste management in every country, the focus is on other exclusive drivers as the starting points of each waste management scenario It is concluded that while the essence of the four groups of drivers can be found all over Asia, each driving group must be investigated in a local context and all http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19470545 at Universiti Malaya (S141/J/2004) on April 7, 2011wmr.sagepub.comDownloaded from CitationsCitations49ReferencesReferences47For example, developed nations have higher paper-based waste and lower organic waste.
http://europa.eu/rapid/pressReleasesAction.do?ref-erence=MEMO/04/86&format=HTML&aged=0&language=EN&guiLanguage=en (accessed 28 August 2008).European Commission (2007) Landfill of Waste. Stakeholder Participation in Municipal Solid WasteManagement, Habitat International, 30, 863–871. This analysis depicts real opportunities for more sustainable and efficient waste management in the municipalities and suggests a step forward towards the integrating best Zero Waste practices in the municipalities in http://app.nea.gov.sg/cms/htdocs/article.asp?pid=1459 (accessed 27 March 2008).Soares, M., Christen, P., Pandey, A. & Soccol, C.R. (2000) Fruity flavourproduction by Ceratocystis fimbriata grown on coffee husk in solid-state fermentation.
They concludedthat creation of awareness should be given the greatest prior-ity as it is expected to increase recycling activities by 20% withconcurrent increases in auxiliary facilities. Countries with lowerGNP, such as Indonesia (1995 per capita GNP US$ 980, 10 kgconsumed year–1) or Vietnam (1995 per capita GNP US$ 2401,1kg consumedyear–1) were listed as 17th and 23rd, respec-tively.Organic It has beenstated that all potential candidates must also amend existingwaste management laws to align with EU environmental leg-islature (European Commission 2004).Business image and profitabilityBusiness organizations are increasingly placing themselves asenvironmental In Malaysia,compost production was reported on rural/sub-urban MSW(Blaise & Agamuthu 2004) and compost derived from agri-cultural waste has been used as a low-cost cover on closedlandfills in tropical conditions, to reduce
On the otherhand, incinerator operations are expensive, despite beingcapable of energy recovery. have a peek at these guys pp S 1.3.1–S 1.3.6.Published by the Society of Solid Waste Management Experts inAsia and the Pacific Islands (SWAP1), Japan.Agamuthu, P. & Hansen, J.A. (2007) Universities in capacity building insustainable development: focus There are manytypes of wastes that can be recovered for sale.This economic driver differs in the effect that it has incomparison with the availability of funds and socio-econom-ics. Policy research and trend studies are often seen as agovernmental domain and have only recently received partic-ipation from scientific researchers.The objective of this article is to elucidate four groups ofdrivers that
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Several types of institutionaldrivers (worldwide environmental protocols, the push fromworldwide CDM initiatives, more effective communicationof scientific research and a greater willingness to adopt evi-dence-based policies) have contributed to the environmentaldriver being Realistically speaking, the amount of moneythat is available to planners to run a sustainable waste man-agement operation is crucial (the economic driver).The group of institutional drivers encourages knowledge/evidence-based policies/strategies, given the A good way of identifying these conditions is bystudying the ‘drivers’ in the planner’s area of responsibility(AOR).Having stated this, a study of the local conditions could becarried out easily if the check over here The objective is related to waste management drivers in the context of circular economy.
Liew &Agamuthu (2004) conducted life-cycle analysis on an electro-plating plant in Malaysia. These important findings could be used as a guide for E&E companies in managing or overcoming barriers during the implementation of material efficiency strategies and other sustainable manufacturing activities. Khidzir, F.S.
at Universiti Malaya (S141/J/2004) on April 7, 2011wmr.sagepub.comDownloaded from Drivers of sustainable waste management in Asia633Khidzir, K.M., Agamuthu, P. & Abdullah, N. (2007) Utilizing solid wastefrom a brewery as a substrate
Typically, the first three groups have been very influential, with the environment driver, noticeably, only considered when preceded by other groups of drivers. WasteManagement Research, 26: 104 –110.Singapore National Environment Agency (2002) The Need for WasteMinimization. Published by the International Solid Waste Association(ISWA) and the Dutch Solid Waste Association (NVRD), theNetherlands.Liew, K.V. & Agamuthu, P. (2004) Cleaner production in electroplatingindustry: a case study. http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/TOPICS/EXTURBANDEVELOPMENT/EXTUSWM/0,,contentMDK:20239437~menuPK:463861~pagePK:210058~piPK:210062~theSitePK:463841,00.html#planning10(accessed 28 August 2008).Contreras, J.F., Ishii, S. & Keisuke, H. (2006) Drivers in the current andfuture municipal solid waste management systems: cases in Yoko-hama and Boston.
Bet-ter education on the ways to reduce or reuse wastes reducesthe burden of managing wastes.The increase in human population and waste generationHuman activities increase in tandem with the increase in pop-ulation. Science contrib-utes towards increased reuse of solid waste (by recycling orcomposting) by reasonably elucidating the lack of sustaina-bility associated with landfills and the considerable costsassociated with incineration.LawLocal legislation can facilitate or In 2005, Japan articulated anaction plan to promote the idea of sound material cycle soci-eties at a global scale. this content Fundamental Plan for Estab-lishing a Sound Material-Cycle Society, http://www.env.go.jp/en/recycle/smcs/2nd-f_plan.pdf. (August 28, 2008).Moulik, S.
TheUnited Nations Environmental Programme (2008) estimatedthat 20–50% of a city’s administration budget is allocated forsolid waste management. Wilson(2007) elucidated the history of waste management and itsdrivers in the European Union, North America and the devel-oping countries taken as a whole.Although the various drivers of solid waste managementare applicable http://www.cv.titech.ac.jp/~jsps/activity_report/2006/Mylene%20Palaypayon%20activity%20report.pdf (accessed27 March 2008).Pandey, A., Azmi, W., Singh, J. & Banerjee, U.C. (1999) Types of fermen-tation and factors affecting it. Besides widespread of open dumping and illegal dumping, landfill sites in Malaysia are in dire state while source separation for recycling remain minimal despite the dominance of recyclable materials in the
MalaysianJournal of Science, 26, 1–16.China Statistics Press (2001) China Statistical Yearbook 2001. 4 – 1 Popu-lation and its Composition. Busi-nesses, non-governmental organizations and private citizensactively participate in environmental plans. Funds are not always available forwaste management, which drives community initiatives forwaste collection and disposal. offers a serv-ice that properly disposes of unwanted computers and itsperipheral equipment (Dell Incorporated 2008).
This, combined with generally tropical orequatorial climates, results in a suitable environment forcompost production. The work that is done to gain new knowledge liesin the domain of the institutional drivers. Thus,people use the methods previously explained.3. Humanactivity inevitably generates waste materials, and this is thequintessential driver of waste management.Health and well-beingThe maintenance of human and environmental health is oneof the main objectives of waste management (Brunner &Fellner
This activity contributes to the effectiveness ofwaste management plans.Increasing legislation on hazardous materials and occupa-tional safety also pushes businesses to create products anddevise processes that are environmentally friendly (Glisovicet al. 2005).The http://unstats.un.org/unsd/envi-ronment/qindicators.htm (accessed 25 February 2008).United Nations Statistics Division (2007c) Environmental Indicators andSelected Times Series: Composition of Municipal Wastes (Latest Year).http://unstats.un.org/unsd/environment/qindicators.htm. (accessed25 February 2008).Wilson, D.C. (2006) Development drivers for waste management. at Universiti Malaya (S141/J/2004) on April 7, 2011wmr.sagepub.comDownloaded from Agamuthu, P., K.M. http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/270310843441(accessed 22 August 2008).Palayapayon, M. & Ohta, H. (2002) Estimation of Sheer Strength Proper-ties of Municipal Solid Waste in Landfills.